Category Archives: Computers and Internet

试用AMD A6 3500微星A75 G55主板及金邦8G内存 引导格式折腾记

2011年9月11日,哈,一个有纪念意义的日子,10年美国911,10年后我换电脑,也算是大事了。
从京东买了以上三样东西,共计1468大元,看了一下替下来的主板,购买日期是08年9月25日。用了三年了非常稳定,我用是的双敏780G AMD5400+ 4G内存 500G硬盘。完美运行3年没有给我找任何的麻烦。
电源我还是用的老电源,用了大约有5年时间了,上面写着P4 300W,航嘉的,主要是考虑小六的体质不错,只有65W,我不超频,2块500G硬盘RAID0(老的一块是SATA1,一块是SATA2),一块1.5T WD绿盘,一块1394卡,人过40,神马都是浮云了,从94年可始玩电脑,算起来17年了,实用够用就是最好的选择,日常的工作就是需要大内存,现在内存都白菜价了,能上大的绝不上小的。
装机无数轻松点亮,一直担心电源不够,老航嘉还是没有让我失望,功力还在,先介绍一下硬盘情况:2块500G硬盘RAID0(老的一块是SATA1,一块是SATA2),一块1.5T WD绿盘。前题条件是用U盘装系统,系统环境windows7 64bit English version. 正版写入U盘有序列号.
重新做RAID0 (ctrl+f),没问题,引导装系统,正常,到是选择哪个盘安装系统时,晕了,没有盘符。冷静,多年经验告诉我是没有加载SATA或RAID驱动造成的,找驱动放到U盘,不认。。。晕。。。。拷到硬盘,加载RAID驱动,,没用。。。我开始凌乱了,难道是电源不足?换个电源,不行。。。。内存错误,不识别??,把两条内存换成不同的插上,单条的,双条的,错误依旧。CPU插拔一次?不行。
最后决定不用RAID了,反正RAID0 一个SATA2 一个SATA1性能上也不好,只是为了省盘符,个人习惯,我不喜欢一大堆盘符放到我面前让我无所适从,最好只有一个盘符。不喜欢记路径。用WD 1.5T的绿盘划了50G给系统分区,用ACHI模式,用IDE模式,问题依旧,从京东12点送货来,已经折腾6个钟头了,还好在自己家,在外面可是要丢死人了,到现在开始怀疑是U盘系统的事了,我用它做了不少系统,从没有过问题,换另外一个U盘试,我有两个U盘,一个是金士顿8G 一个是宇瞻4G,用金士顿8G又做了一个WINDOWS7 64BIT ENGLISH VERSION ISO.没办法一点一点排除吧。引导起来还是不行,于是果断怀疑是主板的问题了,由于没有SATA光驱,无法从光盘安装系统,中间还尝试了用WINDOWS SERVER 2008,启用WDS服务从另外一台机器起服务,来发镜像给新机,但由于没有网卡的64位驱动而作罢。现在最大的问题就是主板了,果断给京东客服打电话说明情况,要求换货,客服同意是主板问题,答应明天换货。至此只有等明天再说了。时间是晚上8:30,折腾了近8个小时。
忽发奇想,会不会是主板不支持U盘的ISO格式所到致?我用ULTRAISO做的windows7 u盘,有几种格式可以选,我一般用USB-HDD+格式写U盘,果断在旧机上接上硬盘,重新做U盘镜像,这次用的USB-HDD格式。没用USB-HDD+,做完以后插上U盘到新机。引导,启动,加载硬盘,安装系统,加载硬盘成功。
对于为何用HDD格式可以引导,而HDD+格式不加载,恐怕只有主板厂商可以解释了,我用双敏780G,还有其他的笔记本,台机机用HDD+这种格式是没有任何问题的。对于EFI引导的格式不太了解。但是不能说主板有问题。
相信这个例子可以让大家明白,凡事皆有可能。

注:AMD A6 3500 在BIOS里看到外频100,应当主频是2100,但是显示是2400,倍频是24,难道我得到是没锁频的版本?MSI G55的WINKI EFI启动做了几次都不成功,不知道应当如何设置,CPU的体温不错,很低,我开了QUIET COOL,老电源和CPU风扇听不到声音,要知道我的老电源可是用了5年,估计功率只有额定250W,峰值可能会到300W,现在的电源一个比一个高,感觉像是电炉子。省电省钱才是第一要务。

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迈过2.1TB天堑:希捷确认今年推3TB硬盘

希捷高级产品经理Barbara Craig今天向英国媒体确认,“我们将在今年晚些时候推出一款3TB硬盘”,不过这次并不仅仅是提高存储密度那么简单。 在硬盘的发展史上,随着存储密度和容量的不断扩大,我们已经遭到过多次容量限制尴尬,从早期的528MB到几年前的137GB,而目前摆在我们面前的一道坎就是2.1TB,刚刚略大于现有硬盘产品的最大容量(组建RAID的朋友可能已经遭遇过了)。 问题的根源还是当年微软、IBM设立的DOS标准之一:逻辑块寻址模式(LBA)。它规定每隔扇区的容量为512字节,而在现有寻址模式下所能支持的最大容量为2.1TB——这也是人类在计算机行业中“短视”的又一后果。Craig说:“我想当时大家都会那么以为,毕竟在二十世纪八十年代人们设立标准的时候,谁也不会想到(硬盘)容量会超过2.1TB。” 当然有问题就得解决。Craig解释说,为了绕过2.1TB容量限制,“我们需要将它(LBA)拓展为Long LBA寻址”。做法很简单,只要在指令描述块(CDB)中提高用来定义LBA寻址的字节数即可,不过也需要操作系统支持。 Windows Vista/7 64位系统和修改版的Linux系统都可以支持这种长字节寻址模式,但Windows XP不行,测试表明3TB硬盘在这个“古老的”系统中仅能显示990MB。 Craig补充说:“为了(支持)主引导记录(MBR),还需要加入(新的)全局唯一标识符分区表(GPT)。”目前的MBR也只能支持到2.1TB,所以绕过它就得使用新的GPT。 到这儿还没完,因为以上这些只能让你将3TB硬盘作为非系统盘,想拿来安装、引导操作系统还有更多困难需要克服。不幸的是,MBR是主板BIOS使用了几十年的一个关键部分。 GPT最初被设想为Intel EFI(可扩展固件接口)的一部分,而后者的目标是取代老旧而不易使用的BIOS,并在统一EFI论坛的主导下发展为UEFI,其众多新特性之一就是更大的LBA寻址机制,突破2.1TB限制轻而易举。 问题是目前使用UEFI系统的主板还少之又少,只有微星等推出了一些产品,距离普及还相当遥远。 综上所说,硬盘控制器、BIOS、驱动程序、操作系统全部都存在2.1TB的“容量墙”,所以推出3TB乃至更大容量硬盘并不支持硬盘厂商自己的事儿,更是整个业界的责任。 但是尽管涉及面相当广,曙光也已经近在眼前。Craig指出:“包括操作系统、BIOS、RAID控制器(制造商)在内的很多合作伙伴都已重视这个问题。我想大概80%的基础架构已经准备好支持(UEFI)了。关于UEFI标准,沃恩会在下个月举行一次聚会,确保大家都做好准备,还获得了国际硬盘驱动器和设备材料协会(IDEMA Group)的支持。” 希捷称,如果一切问题都获得完美解决,他们将在今年底发布第一款容量超过2.1TB的企业级硬盘,言外之意桌面版至少得明年了。

Install LAMP on Ubuntu 9.10 Karmic Koala

October 29, 2009 by Linerd
Filed under: HowTo, Ubuntu, linux, web development 

Why install LAMP on your desktop computer?

Why would I want to install and set up a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, php) stack on Ubuntu 9.10?
It’s useful if you want to set up a private web development
environment. Perhaps you want to develop your own WordPress theme. If
you are developing websites and experimenting, it’s nice to do it in
the privacy of your own computer, rather than out on the public
internet.

Install LAMP

The Ubuntu developers have created a very easy way to install a LAMP
server on an existing system. It’s all kicked off with this one simple
terminal command.

sudo apt-get install lamp-server^

Note: Please make note of the caret (^) in the above command, it’s not a typo, it’s required to make the command work.

Install LAMP with apt-get

Install LAMP with apt-get

The apt package manager will show all the packages that need to be installed. Hit <Enter> to confirm that you want to install them.

You will then be prompted to change the password for the root user on the MySQL database.

Setting root password for MySQL

Setting root password for MySQL

Enter the password you want. You’ll be prompted to enter it a second time to confirm.

After you confirm your password, apt will continue to install the rest of the packages.

Lamp installation is complete

Lamp installation is complete

Congratulations, your LAMP installation is complete! That was the
easy part, now you need to get things configured to make the system
easy to work with.

Test Apache

Open a web browser and enter the address http://localhost/. You should see a web page that says "It Works!"

Apache works!

Apache works!

Testing php

Now that you know Apache works, it’s time to test the php installation. You’ll need to create a file in /var/www called testing.php. Open a terminal and enter:

gksudo gedit /var/www/testing.php

Enter the following line into the text editor, save the file and exit.

<?php phpinfo(); ?>
Creating testing.php

Creating testing.php

Next, restart Apache with the following terminal command.

sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Now go back to your web browser and enter the address http://localhost/testing.php/. You should see a page displaying version information for your php installation.

Testing php - it works!

Testing php – it works!

Configuring MySQL

Since I’m installing LAMP for a web development environment, I want
to bind the MySQL database to the localhost IP address. This should be
127.0.0.1 for your system. You can verify it with this terminal command.

cat /etc/hosts | grep localhost

You’ll now want to verify that the correct bind address is set up in the my.cnf file.

cat /etc/mysql/my.cnf | grep bind-address

You should see a line that looks like

bind-address		= 127.0.0.1

If the IP address doesn’t match the one for your system, you’ll need to edit the my.cnf file to correct it.

Install phpMyAdmin

You don’t need to install phpMyAdmin, but it’s a much easier way to
get in and muck around with things in your MySQL database if you’re not
familiar with the MySQL commands. You can install phpMyAdmin from the
command line with

sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql phpmyadmin

The installation will prompt you to select a web server for
automatic configuration. Use the space bar on your keyboard to select apache2 and then hit <Enter>.

Configure phpMyAdmin for Apache2

Configure phpMyAdmin for Apache2

Another screen will come up asking if you want to configure a new database called dbconfig-common.  Since this is a fresh installation, use the <Tab> key to select Yes and hit <Enter>.

Configure dbconfig-common

Configure dbconfig-common

You’ll be prompted next to enter the MySQL root password. Enter the MySQL root password that you created earlier, hit <Tab> to select Ok and hit <Enter>.

Enter MySQL root password

Enter MySQL root password

You’ll then be prompted to enter a MySQL application password for phpmyadmin. You can hit <Enter>
and a random password will be generated. I chose to use the same
password that I used for the root MySQL password. If you enter your own
password, a password confirmation screen will come up. Confirm your
password.

MySQL application password confirmation

MySQL application password confirmation

The phpMyAdmin installation is now complete.

Testing phpMyAdmin

Open your web browser and enter the address http://localhost/phpmyadmin/. You should see a page like this.

Testing phpMyAdmin

Testing phpMyAdmin

You can log in with the username root and the root password that you created earlier.

phpMyAdmin home screen

phpMyAdmin home screen

Congratulations, you’re now ready to start building your local
website. If you’re only working on one site you can put all of the
files into /var/www.  If you’ll be working on multiple sites you may want to consider some additional Apache configuration to keep things neat and clean on you system.

[OS X 通用] 解决Windows和Mac时间不一致的问题

本帖最后由 gamesome 于 09/10/30 02:12 PM 编辑 Windows与Mac缺省看待系统硬件时间的方式是不一样的:
Windows把系统硬件时间当作本地时间(local time),即操作系统中显示的时间跟BIOS/EFI中显示的时间是一样的。
Mac把硬件时间当作UTC,操作系统中显示的时间是硬件时间经过换算得来的,比如说北京时间是GMT+8,则系统中显示时间是硬件时间+8。

  1. UTC即Universal Time Coordinated,协调世界时
  2. GMT即Greenwich Mean Time,格林尼治平时

复制代码

假如你的Mac和Windows中设置的时区都为北京时间东八区,而你在Mac中把当前系统时间更改为9:00AM。则此时硬件中存储的实际是UTC时间1:00AM。这时你重启进入Windows后,你会发现windows系统中显示的时间是1:00AM,比Mac中慢了八个小时。同理,你在Windows中更改或用网络同步了系统时间后,再到Mac中去看,系统就会快了8小时。在实行夏令时的地区,情况可能会更复杂些。

解决方法:

让Windows把硬件时间当作 UTC
开始->运行->CMD,打开命令行程序(Vista或Win7则要以管理员方式打开命令行程序方可有权限访问注册表),在命令行中输入下面命令并回车

  1. Reg add HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\TimeZoneInformation /v RealTimeIsUniversal /t REG_DWORD /d 1

复制代码

Mac OS X Server v10.5: Installing on a computer that won’t start up from the installation disc

Last Modified: August 01, 2009
Article: HT3479

Summary
If your computer came with a more recent version of Mac OS X than the version of the Mac OS X Server installation disc that you are trying to use, that disc may not be able to start up your computer. When you start the computer from the installation disc, the computer may display a blank or gray screen. In some instances, when installing Mac OS X Server over Mac OS X, the choice of Standard, Workgroup, or Advanced server configuration will not be offered.

Products Affected
Mac OS X Server 10.5
To install Mac OS X Server v10.5 on a computer that already has a later version of Mac OS X installed, follow these steps:

Be sure that you have completed the Mac OS X Setup Assistant on the target computer.
Run Software Update to install all available updates.
Connect your target computer to the secure Ethernet network where it will function as a server. If you have DNS service provided by your ISP, Internet router, or other servers on your network, make sure it is running and set up for your new server.
Launch Terminal and perform the following command:
$ sudo rm /var/db/.AppleInstallType.plist

Note: This utilizes the delete command with root privileges, so be sure to input the command correctly.

Insert the Mac OS X Server Install Disc.
Open the Install Mac OS X Server application.
Click the Install button. Note: If the button reads Restart instead of Install, then your computer can start from the installation disc. Simply click Restart and follow the onscreen instructions. You may skip the steps below.
Follow the onscreen instructions. The installer will install the necessary pieces of Mac OS X Server without removing any of the software already installed on your computer.
Once the software is successfully installed, close the Installer window and then immediately run Software Update. Install the latest Mac OS X Server update and any other recommended updates.
Software Update will prompt you to restart your computer when it is finished and the Server Assistant will appear. Complete it according to the instructions in your Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard – Getting Started guide.

Additional Information
If you choose the Advanced configuration option in Server Assistant in step 10, Kerberos may not start correctly after you finish setting up the server and restart. To correct this, run the following commands in a Terminal window, after setting up and restarting the server:

sudo -s
kdcsetup -d
cd /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/
mv com.apple.kdcmond.plist com.apple.kdcmond.plist.orig
kdcsetup -e

Important: After entering the first command you must type the password for the administrator account created in the Mac OS X Setup Assistant in step 1.

In addition, if you configure your server as a Kerberos Domain Controller (KDC) in step 10, and you encounter unexpected issues with client authentication, you may need to rebuild the KDC. For instructions, see this article.

Mac Pro Nehalem problem when installing Mac OS X Server

http://support.apple.com/kb/HT3479

Mac OS X Server v10.5: Installing on a computer that won’t start up from the installation disc
Last Modified: August 01, 2009
Article: HT3479

Summary
If your computer came with a more recent version of Mac OS X than the version of the Mac OS X Server installation disc that you are trying to use, that disc may not be able to start up your computer. When you start the computer from the installation disc, the computer may display a blank or gray screen. In some instances, when installing Mac OS X Server over Mac OS X, the choice of Standard, Workgroup, or Advanced server configuration will not be offered.

Products Affected
Mac OS X Server 10.5
To install Mac OS X Server v10.5 on a computer that already has a later version of Mac OS X installed, follow these steps:

Be sure that you have completed the Mac OS X Setup Assistant on the target computer.
Run Software Update to install all available updates.
Connect your target computer to the secure Ethernet network where it will function as a server. If you have DNS service provided by your ISP, Internet router, or other servers on your network, make sure it is running and set up for your new server.
Launch Terminal and perform the following command:
$ sudo rm /var/db/.AppleInstallType.plist

Note: This utilizes the delete command with root privileges, so be sure to input the command correctly.

Insert the Mac OS X Server Install Disc.
Open the Install Mac OS X Server application.
Click the Install button. Note: If the button reads Restart instead of Install, then your computer can start from the installation disc. Simply click Restart and follow the onscreen instructions. You may skip the steps below.
Follow the onscreen instructions. The installer will install the necessary pieces of Mac OS X Server without removing any of the software already installed on your computer.
Once the software is successfully installed, close the Installer window and then immediately run Software Update. Install the latest Mac OS X Server update and any other recommended updates.
Software Update will prompt you to restart your computer when it is finished and the Server Assistant will appear. Complete it according to the instructions in your Mac OS X Server v10.5 Leopard – Getting Started guide.

Additional Information
If you choose the Advanced configuration option in Server Assistant in step 10, Kerberos may not start correctly after you finish setting up the server and restart. To correct this, run the following commands in a Terminal window, after setting up and restarting the server:

sudo -s
kdcsetup -d
cd /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/
mv com.apple.kdcmond.plist com.apple.kdcmond.plist.orig
kdcsetup -e

Important: After entering the first command you must type the password for the administrator account created in the Mac OS X Setup Assistant in step 1.

In addition, if you configure your server as a Kerberos Domain Controller (KDC) in step 10, and you encounter unexpected issues with client authentication, you may need to rebuild the KDC. For instructions, see this article.

Topic : Mac os x server doesn´t boot from dvd

This question is not answered. "Helpful" answers available: 2 . "Solved" answers available: 1 .
Reply to this Topic Back to Topic List

Replies : 3 – Pages : 1 – Last Post : Nov 6, 2009 9:09 AM by: Paul Parry
kyriox

Posts: 4
From: Mexico
Registered: Oct 28, 2009
Mac os x server doesn´t boot from dvd
Posted: Oct 28, 2009 12:59 PM
Reply Email

Hi. Sorry by my english writing

I have a problem installing mac os x server in a mac server. The server doesn´t have graphic card. I wanted install the os using screen sahring method, I have a dhcp server running in the local network and the server has a network connection, additionally I configured the dhcp server to give a static ip address to the server. I follow the instructions to boot from optical drive using the system identifier button, but when the server starts only looks like it is working and after a few seconds eject the dvd, is that correct. I have no idea what is wrong, becuase the server don’t get the ip addresa and can’t perform the screen sharing method described in the xserver user guide. The only solution that I can think is to get a video card and plug it to see what it is happening, I have test the dhcp server a it is working. If somenone can give an advice, I’ll be very graceful.

Message was edited by: kyriox

Powerbook Mac OS X (10.5) None
carana

Posts: 2
From: Arlington, VA
Registered: Oct 23, 2009
Re: Mac os x server doesn´t boot from dvd
Posted: Oct 28, 2009 1:18 PM in response to: kyriox
Reply Email

The only Xserve without a graphics card that I am aware of is the G5 Xserve, which is not compatible with Snow Leopard Server, since 10.6 is Intel processor only.

G. Discenza

Mac Mini Mac OS X (10.6.1) SL Server
kyriox

Posts: 4
From: Mexico
Registered: Oct 28, 2009
Re: Mac os x server doesn´t boot from dvd
Posted: Oct 28, 2009 9:33 PM in response to: carana
Reply Email

The Server has an intel processor. We bought the server without graphics card. The ways that we can use to access the Xserve are by the serial port or by vnc(using screen sharing). The problem its that the Xserve doesn’t boot from the dvd and I’am using the disc that was shipped with the server.

Powerbook Mac OS X (10.4.11) None
Paul Parry

Posts: 9
Registered: Sep 13, 2005
Re: Mac os x server doesn´t boot from dvd
Posted: Nov 6, 2009 9:09 AM in response to: kyriox
Reply Email

Hi kyriox,

I had a similar issue earlier this year. If you take a look at-

http://discussions.apple.com/message.jspa?messageID=9440187#9440187

and follow the last post from Larry Ho, then you should be able to resolve matters.
This method also worked for me, but the post thread was closed before I could confirm it. The only problem that remained was the fact that nfs was still an active service at the end of it all. I simply disabled this within SA in the end.

Hope this helps,
Paul

如何在雪豹中开启原生NTFS读写支持? 转载

苹果系统和windows双系统在共享文件的时候及其不方便,特别是win磁盘是NTFS的时候。

本教程将教大家如何开启10.6系统中的NTFS读写支持。在使用本教学文章之前,请先确定你没有安装NTFS-3G或Paragon NTFS这类的软件,或者已经删除干净,才能有效启用,并且避免问题发生。

  1. 取得磁盘的UUID。
    首先要先取得NTFS格式磁盘的UUID(通用唯一識別碼),打开磁盘工具(应用程序->实用工具中)后,选择NTFS磁盘,再点击上方的”简介”。

  2. 在弹出的窗口中,下图红框中的就是UUID(通用唯一识别码),请将它选取并且复制(按下Command+C)。
  3. 打开终端(应用程序->实用工具),輸入:
    sudo nano /etc/fstab

  4. 接下来在打开的的窗口中,输入一行文字。
    UUID= 磁盘的UUID none ntfs rw

  5. 输入完毕后,按下Ctrl+X,编辑器会问你要不要存储,按下y,接着按enter即可。
  6. 重新启动系统。这时候NTFS就能直接读写了。

Working with PHP 5 in Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard)

PHPMac
OS X is a great development platform for working with PHP. Leopard
comes with Apache, PHP and many other development tools, such as
subversion already installed. Leopard brings a much needed upgrade from
Tiger’s tired PHP 4 to a very modern version of PHP 5.2.4. This is a
guide for setting up a PHP development environment under 10.5 using the
version of PHP that ships with leopard.

You may prefer to use one of the 3rd party distributions of PHP, such as MAMP, XAMPP or Marc Liyanage. This is a guide to using the version of PHP that comes with 10.5.

Enable Developer Tools

These steps may not be strictly necessary for this process, but I find it useful to do them.
First, enable your root password.
You may also want to install XCode Tools from your Leopard disk (or grab the latest from Apple developer tools). The tools are required is you are going to compile any extensions for PHP.

Editing Configuration Files

We will have to edit several configuration files that exist as part
of the unixy underpinnings of OS X. I’m going to recommend the free
text editor, TextWrangler
for this purpose. Normally, the finder hides the configuration files
from view. However, in the finder, you can use the “Goto Folder…”
option under the “Go” menu to view these files. This option if
available via command-shift-G. Actually, this option is available in
any file open dialog in OS X via command-shift-G. In addition, Text
Wrangler will allow you to browse these files with its “open hidden…”
option. But, the much easier option is selecting “Open file by name…”
(command-D) and just typing the full path and filename. To save many of
these files, you will need to enter your root password. Be Careful.

Enabling PHP

PHP is installed in Mac OS X by default, but not enabled. To enable
it, we must edit the apache 2 configuration file, which is located at /etc/apache2/httpd.conf. Find the line which loads the PHP 5 module, which looks like this:

#LoadModule php5_module libexec/apache2/libphp5.so

The line is currently commented out. All we have to do is remove the comment symbol, #, so the line looks like this:

LoadModule php5_module libexec/apache2/libphp5.so

Save.

Starting Apache

Go to the sharing panel in system preferences and enable “Web Sharing.” This will start the apache server.
Sharing Panel
Another way to do this is to type the following in the Terminal application:

sudo apachectl start

You will be prompted to enter your root password. After that, your
apache server should now be running. If you need to restart the server
from the terminal, you can type this:

sudo apachectl restart

If you find this tedious to type, there is a script that you can download to do this later in this post.

Visiting our Web Site

Now, lets check our work. In the sharing panel, you can click on the
URL under “Your computer’s website.” Alternatively, in the web browser,
go to the url http://localhost/.
localhost is a special name that means “My computer.” If your web
server is working, you should see a page titled “Test Page for Apache
Installation.” If you go to http://localhost/manual/, you can read an Apache 2.2 manual, hosted from your own server. But, this don’t tell you that PHP is working.
For that, we’ll have to create a very simple php program. Create a new file in TextWrangler and type the following:

 
< ?php phpinfo(); ?>
 

(Don’t just copy and paste this. Note that there should be no space between the < and the ?php. The WordPress software I use for this blog inserts an extra space.)
Save this using the file name info.php in the /Library/WebServer/Documents/
directory. (start from the top level directory of your hard drive, not
the library directory in your home directory. Now you should be able to
visit the PHP page you just created by visiting http://localhost/info.php. You should see the PHP logo and a big table of configuration information.

Showing the World

For security purposes, you should consider that anything you put in your WebServer/Documents
folder will be available across the web. If you have information that
you want to keep private, think twice about putting it there, unless
you know how to protect it.
But, if you want people to see the pages that you are sharing, there
can be a few obstacles. You can give out the URL that is listed in the
sharing control panel under “Your computer’s website.” However, if you
are behind a NAT
router, such as I am, this IP address based url will only work for
other computers on your network and not for the internet as a whole.
You may have to configure network router or firewall in order to
discover your true ip address and to route web server requests to that
IP to your computer. Doing this is beyond the scope of this tutorial.
Additionally, IP address based urls don’t make good urls to share. IP
addresses can change. If you plan to host a permanent web site, you may
want to purchase a domain name and point it to your Mac. This also, is
beyond the scope of this tutorial.
Perhaps the best option is to purchase both a domain name and
professional hosting. Apache based PHP Hosting is widely available and
cheap. You can get support from a good host on uploading your files to
the remote server. I’m going to presume that you will use one of the
many excellent PHP hosting options and are only configuring PHP on your
own machine for education, testing or development purposes.

Enabling a Personal Website

If you clicked on the URL under “Your Personal Website,” you might
have gotten a page that says forbidden. This is because in the default
configuration in Leopard, unlike in Tiger, does not allow Apache to
serve documents from home directories. If you want to enable this
feature, you have to create a new Configuration file.
Create a new file with the following contents and save it to /etc/apache2/users/jeff.conf.

 
<directory "/Users/jeff/Sites">
Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</directory>
 

Replace “jeff” with your user name, which is also the name of your home
directory. Exact capitalization is imporant. This tells the Apache
server that it is ok to serve web content out of the ~jeff directory. You will have to restart Apache for this to take effect.
You may also have to create a Sites
folder in your home directory to hold the files you want to serve.
Leopard will automatically bless this folder with a special Icon.

Virtual Hosting

If you want to experiment with or work on more than one site at a
time, the single directory in WebServer Documents and the Personal
Websites configuration don’t work well. Projects collide and files
outside of your home directory can be harder to work with. The answer
to this is to setup virtual hosting. Lets turn our Personal Website
sharing solution into a virtual hosting solution that allows us to work
with multiple websites as subdirectories of our Sites folder.
So, lets create a sample site, called mysite. We’ll create a folder
called “mysite” as a sub folder of our Sites folder. Capitalization is
important.
Now, we are going to want to access our site with an easy to use domain name, so that our url is http://mysite/. There is an easy way to create new domain names that are only for personal use. To do this, we can add it to our /etc/hosts file. Add the following lines at the end of this file:

# My local aliases
127.0.0.1 mysite

127.0.0.1 is a special IP address designation that never changes and
corresponds to localhost to mean this computer. We are telling our Mac
that the name mysite is hosted on the local computer. This rule is only
in effect on the same machine. If you go to a different machine, you
cannot use the http://mysite/ url.
Now we need to configure apache for virtual hosting. We are going to have to edit our /etc/apache2/users/jeff.conf file. Change the contents of this file to the following:

 
<directory "/Users/jeff/Sites/*/">
Options Indexes MultiViews FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
Order allow,deny
Allow from all
</directory>
 
NameVirtualHost *:80
 
<virtualhost *:80>
DocumentRoot /Users/jeff/Sites/mysite
ServerName mysite
</virtualhost>
 

Remember to replace “jeff” with your user name. Place your info.php test file into the mysite directory and rename it to index.php. Now, restart your apache server. When you visit http://mysite/, you should now see the familiar php logo and information page.
If you want to add another site, just add a second line in your hosts
file, another subdirectory of Sites and append the following to your
apache configuration file:

 
<virtualhost *:80>
DocumentRoot /Users/jeff/Sites/myothersite
ServerName myothersite
</virtualhost>
 

Sharing with the World, Part II

Sharing your virtual hosted sites with the world is more complicated
if you don’t have a domain name setup. You can, however, add your hosts
files entries to other computers that you want to share with. However,
you have to change the 127.0.0.1 IP address to the IP address of your
computer, taking into account any NAT.
There is a special case of this. If you are using parallels, perhaps
for test viewing your pages in internet explorer, you may want your
virtual hosted sites to be available. The good news is that Windows
also supports a hosts file. Here is how to edit your windows hosts file.
The big problem is knowing what IP address to use. You can’t use
127.0.0.1 on the windows side because that is the virtual windows
machine, not your Mac’s address. You can use the IP address shown on
your network system preferences panel, 192.168.1.100 for me. But, this
number is subject to change and you will have to re-edit your hosts
file on the windows side.
If you are using Parellels, be sure to upgrade to the new beta version
for Leopard, build 5540. Once you’ve done that, if you visit the
network panel in system preferences and select the “Parallels
Host-Guest” network, you will see the IP address that parallels assigns
to your host machine. (assuming you are using Shared Networking.) You
can then use this IP address in your windows hosts file. You may also
be able to change “Using DHCP” to “Using DHCP with Manual address” and
re-entering this number if you have a problem with the number changing.
Here, my number is 10.37.129.3:

Network Preferences panel

Installing MySQL

MySQL has a binary distribution for Mac OS X. They also have reasonably good documentation on installing MySQL on Mac OS X for their distribution. Note that Leopard specific packages for MySQL have not been created yet.

Starting MySQL

So far, the MySQL preferences panel from the Tiger release is broken and does not correctly start and stop MySQL (bug report. You can do this from the terminal window with

sudo /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server start

To shutdown the server type:

sudo /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server stop

If you find this tedious to type, you can download WebDevCP,
which is a small AppleScript application that I made. Launching
WebDevCP launches both Apache and MySQL. Quitting the application shuts
them both down. usually. Launching and quitting requires a password. No
warranty on this thing. It was just something I was using personally
and figured others might find useful.

Bring the mysql.sock to PHP

One problem that has come about with MySQL and Leopard is the location of the mysql.sock file. Previously, the default location for this file was in the /tmp directory. That location has now moved to the /var/mysql
directory. PHP will look for it there. Unfortunately, the default
location from the MySQL will still place it in the old location. We can
fix this by creating a my.cnf configuration file in the /etc directory. Save a file with the following contents to /etc/my.cnf:

[client]
socket = /var/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
socket = /var/mysql/mysql.sock

In the terminal window, type the following commands to create the directory for the sock file:

sudo mkdir /var/mysql
sudo chown _mysql /var/mysql

One drawback to this is that if you have installed the MySQL GUI tools, they will look for the mysql.sock
file at the old location. You can enter the new socket in the
connection dialog under More Options, there is a box labeled “connect
using socket.” Just enter /var/mysql/mysql.sock.
Another solution is to change the php.ini file to expect the socket in a different location. I’m going with the my.cnf option because I expect the MySQL will have a Leopard version out in a few days that changes the default location.

Where is PEAR?

OS X has traditionally had problems with PEAR.
Many point updates would overwrite the included version of PEAR with an
older, and perhaps insecure version. Sadly, Apple has fixed this by not
including PEAR at all in their OS. This is a big inconvenience for
people wanting to use Apple’s default version of PHP, versus a third
party distribution. So, lets get PEAR installed. Type the following in
the terminal window to download the PEAR installer:

curl http://pear.php.net/go-pear > go-pear.php

after that, type

sudo php -q go-pear.php

To run it. Hit enter to select the default locations. PEAR will be
installed, but it won’t be ready to use until we modify our php.ini file.

PHP .ini configuration

Now we need to make some changes to our php configuration file.
Leopard has an empty configuration file by default, but provides a file
which you can use as a template. From the terminal window, type:

sudo cp /etc/php.ini.default /etc/php.ini

Now, edit the /etc/php.ini file. Find the include_path setting:

;include_path = ".:/php/includes"

And change it to

include_path = ".:/usr/share/pear"

This enables our PEAR installation. You may also want to make some
changes which will improve your ability to debug PHP. FInd the line
that says

log_errors = Off

and change it to

log_errors = On

You have to then restart Apache for these PHP changes to go into effect.

Errors and Omissions

Thats all there is to using the version of PHP delivered with OS X.
If you find this confusing, you are probably better off with something
like XAMPP or MAMP. I’ll probably end up compiling my own versions of
PHP, but that is a different blog post. I’ve already had problems with
this configuration when I tried to install XDebug via PECL. One last
thing, if you run into problems, you can check the apache2 error_log
file using the Console application.

For support, try the Sitepoint forums or Apple’s Discussion Forums.

Realone and Quicktime can’t working on Endpoint

Hi, when we update symentac from 10.2 to endpoint 11.0.4000.2295 ,we find the Realone and Quicktime can’t work and have error massage as Pic. our client run on vista sp2 with lastest version and update. and it working on school domain. before we used symentac 10.2 realone and quicktime working well.  can you help me solution this problem.imagebrowser imageimagebrowser imageimagebrowser imageimagebrowser image

Hyper-V Step-by-Step Guide: Hyper-V and Failover Clustering

 

This guide walks you through the steps required to set up Hyper-V™ and Failover Clustering to use these two technologies together.

Scenario overview

The Hyper-V role enables you to create a virtualized server computing environment using a technology that is part of the Windows Server® 2008 operating system. This solution is provided through Hyper-V. You can use a virtualized computing environment to improve the efficiency of your computing resources by utilizing more of your hardware resources.

The Failover Clustering feature enables you to create and manage failover clusters. A failover cluster is a group of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of applications and services. The clustered servers (called nodes) are connected by physical cables and by software. If one of the cluster nodes fails, another node begins to provide service (a process known as failover). Users experience a minimum of disruptions in service.

This guide shows you how to use these two technologies together to make a virtual machine highly available. You will do this by creating a simple two-node cluster and a virtual machine, and then failing over the virtual machine from one node to the other.

Requirements for using Hyper-V and Failover Clustering

To use the Hyper-V role on a failover cluster with two nodes, you need the hardware, software, accounts, and network infrastructure described in the sections that follow.

 

Hardware requirements for Hyper-V

Hyper-V requires an x64-based processor, hardware-assisted virtualization, and hardware data execution protection. You can identify systems that support the x64 architecture and Hyper-V by searching the Windows Server catalog for Hyper-V as an additional qualification. The Windows Server catalog is available at the Microsoft Web site http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=111228.

 

Hardware requirements for a two-node failover cluster

You will need the following hardware for a two-node failover cluster:

  • Servers: We recommend that you use a set of matching computers that contain the same or similar components.ImportantImportant

    You should use only hardware components that are compatible with Windows Server 2008.

     

  • Network adapters and cable (for network communication): The network hardware, like other components in the failover cluster solution, must be compatible with Windows Server 2008. Your network adapters must be dedicated to either network communication or iSCSI, not both.
    In the network infrastructure that connects your cluster nodes, avoid having single points of failure. There are multiple ways of accomplishing this. You can connect your cluster nodes by multiple, distinct networks. Alternatively, you can connect your cluster nodes with one network that is constructed with redundant switches, redundant routers, or similar hardware that removes single points of failure.noteNote

    If you connect cluster nodes with a single network, the network will pass the redundancy requirement in the Validate a Configuration Wizard. However, the report from the wizard will include a warning that the network should not have single points of failure.

    For more details about the network configuration required for a failover cluster, see Network infrastructure and domain account requirements for a two-node failover cluster, later in this guide.

     

  • Device controllers or appropriate adapters for the iSCSI storage:
    • For Serial Attached SCSI or Fibre Channel: If you are using Serial Attached SCSI or Fibre Channel, in all clustered servers, the mass-storage device controllers that are dedicated to the cluster storage should be identical. They should also use the same firmware version.noteNote

      With Windows Server 2008, you cannot use parallel SCSI to connect the storage to the clustered servers.

       

    • For iSCSI: If you are using iSCSI, each clustered server must have one or more network adapters or host bus adapters that are dedicated to the cluster storage. The network you use for iSCSI cannot be used for network communication. In all clustered servers, the network adapters you use to connect to the iSCSI storage target should be identical, and we recommend that you use Gigabit Ethernet or higher.noteNote

      You cannot use teamed network adapters, because they are not supported with iSCSI.

      For more information about iSCSI, see the iSCSI FAQ on the Microsoft Web site (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=61375).

  • Storage: You must use shared storage that is compatible with Windows Server 2008.
    For a two-node failover cluster, the storage should contain at least two separate volumes (LUNs), configured at the hardware level. Do not expose the clustered volumes to servers that are not in the cluster. One volume will function as the witness disk (described later in this section). One volume will contain the files that are being shared between the cluster nodes. This volume serves as the shared storage on which you will create the virtual machine and the virtual hard disk. To complete the steps as described in this document, you only need to expose one volume.noteNote

    If you plan to create and use more than one virtual machine, as a best practice, consider creating a separate volume for each virtual machine.

    Storage requirements include the following:

    • To use the native disk support included in Failover Clustering, use basic disks, not dynamic disks.
    • We recommend that you format the partitions with NTFS (for the witness disk, the partition must be NTFS).
    • For the partition style of the disk, you can use either master boot record (MBR) or GUID partition table (GPT).

    The witness disk is a disk in the cluster storage that is designated to hold a copy of the cluster configuration database. (A witness disk is part of some, not all, quorum configurations.) For this two-node cluster, the quorum configuration will be Node and Disk Majority, the default for a cluster with an even number of nodes. Node and Disk Majority means that the nodes and the witness disk each contain copies of the cluster configuration, and the cluster has quorum as long as a majority (two out of three) of these copies are available.

Deploying storage area networks with failover clusters

When deploying a storage area network (SAN) with a failover cluster, follow these guidelines:

  • Confirm compatibility of the storage: Confirm with manufacturers and vendors that the storage, including drivers, firmware, and software used for the storage, are compatible with failover clusters in Windows Server 2008.ImportantImportant

    Storage that was compatible with server clusters in Windows Server 2003 might not be compatible with failover clusters in Windows Server 2008. Contact your vendor to ensure that your storage is compatible with failover clusters in Windows Server 2008.

    Failover clusters include the following new requirements for storage:

    • Because improvements in failover clusters require that the storage respond correctly to specific SCSI commands, the storage must follow the standard called SCSI Primary Commands-3 (SPC-3). In particular, the storage must support Persistent Reservations as specified in the SPC-3 standard.
    • The miniport driver used for the storage must work with the Microsoft Storport storage driver.

     

  • Isolate storage devices, one cluster per device: Servers from different clusters must not be able to access the same storage devices. In most cases, a LUN that is used for one set of cluster servers should be isolated from all other servers through LUN masking or zoning.
  • Consider using multipath I/O software: In a highly available storage fabric, you can deploy failover clusters with multiple host bus adapters by using multipath I/O software. This provides the highest level of redundancy and availability. For Windows Server 2008, your multipath solution must be based on Microsoft Multipath I/O (MPIO). Your hardware vendor will usually supply an MPIO device-specific module (DSM) for your hardware, although Windows Server 2008 includes one or more DSMs as part of the operating system.ImportantImportant

    Host bus adapters and multipath I/O software can be very version sensitive. If you are implementing a multipath solution for your cluster, you should work closely with your hardware vendor to choose the correct adapters, firmware, and software for Windows Server 2008.

Software requirements for using Hyper-V and Failover Clustering

The following are the software requirements for using Hyper-V and Failover Clustering:

  • Windows Server 2008 Enterprise or Windows Server 2008 Datacenter must be used for the physical computers. These servers must run the same version of Windows Server 2008, including the same type of installation. That is, both servers must be either a full installation or a Server Core installation. The instructions in this guide assume that both servers are running a full installation of Windows Server 2008.
  • If you do not want to install Windows Server 2008 Enterprise or Windows Server 2008 Datacenter on the test virtual machine, you will need the installation media for the operating system. The instructions in this guide assume that you will install Windows Server 2008 on the virtual machine.

 

Network infrastructure and domain account requirements for a two-node failover cluster

You will need the following network infrastructure for a two-node failover cluster and an administrative account with the following domain permissions:

  • Network settings and IP addresses: When you use identical network adapters for a network, also use identical communication settings on those adapters (for example, Speed, Duplex Mode, Flow Control, and Media Type). Also, compare the settings between the network adapter and the switch it connects to and make sure that no settings are in conflict.
    If you have private networks that are not routed to the rest of your network infrastructure, ensure that each of these private networks uses a unique subnet. This is necessary even if you give each network adapter a unique IP address. For example, if you have a cluster node in a central office that uses one physical network, and another node in a branch office that uses a separate physical network, do not specify 10.0.0.0/24 for both networks, even if you give each adapter a unique IP address.
    For more information about the network adapters, see Hardware requirements for a two-node failover cluster, earlier in this guide.
  • DNS: The servers in the cluster must be using Domain Name System (DNS) for name resolution. The DNS dynamic update protocol can be used.
  • Domain role: All servers in the cluster must be in the same Active Directory domain. As a best practice, all clustered servers should have the same domain role (either member server or domain controller). The recommended role is member server.
  • Domain controller: We recommend that your clustered servers be member servers. If they are, you need an additional server that acts as the domain controller in the domain that contains your failover cluster.
  • Clients: As needed, you can connect one or more networked clients to the failover cluster that you create, and observe the effect on a client when you move or fail over the highly available virtual machine from one cluster node to the other.
  • Account for administering the cluster: When you first create a cluster or add servers to it, you must be logged on to the domain with an account that has administrator rights and permissions on all servers in that cluster. The account does not need to be a Domain Admins account, but can be a Domain Users account that is in the Administrators group on each clustered server. In addition, if the account is not a Domain Admins account, the account (or the group that the account is a member of) must be given the Create Computer Objectspermission in the domain.noteNote

    There is a change in the way the Cluster service runs in Windows Server 2008, as compared to Windows Server 2003. In Windows Server 2008, there is no Cluster service account. Instead, the Cluster service automatically runs in a special context that provides the specific permissions and privileges that are necessary for the service (similar to the local system context, but with reduced privileges).

Steps for testing Hyper-V and Failover Clustering

 

Step 1: Connect both physical computers to the networks and storage

Use the following instructions to connect your selected cluster servers to networks and storage.

noteNote

Review Hardware Requirements for a Two-Node Failover Clusterearlier in this guide, for details about the kinds of network adapters and device controllers that you can use with Windows Server 2008.

To connect the cluster servers to the networks and storage

  1. Review the details about networks in Hardware Requirements for a Two-Node Failover Cluster and Network infrastructure and domain account requirements for a two-node failover cluster, earlier in this guide.
  2. Connect and configure the networks that the servers in the cluster will use.

    noteNote

    If you want to include clients or a non-clustered domain controller as part of your test configuration, make sure that these computers can connect to the clustered servers through at least one network.

     

  3. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for physically connecting the servers to the storage.
  4. Ensure that the disks (LUNs) that you want to use in the cluster are exposed to the servers that you will cluster (and only those servers). You can use any of the following interfaces to expose disks or LUNs:
    • The interface provided by the manufacturer of the storage.
    • An appropriate iSCSI interface.
    • Microsoft Storage Manager for SANs (part of the operating system in Windows Server 2008). To use this interface, you need to contact the manufacturer of your storage for a Virtual Disk Service (VDS) provider package that is designed for your storage.

     

  5. If you have purchased software that controls the format or function of the disk, follow instructions from the vendor about how to use that software with Windows Server 2008.
  6. On one of the servers that you want to cluster, click Start, click Administrative Tools, click Computer Management, and then click Disk Management. (If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.) In Disk Management, confirm that the cluster disks are visible.
  7. If you want to have a storage volume larger than 2 terabytes, and you are using the Windows interface to control the format of the disk, convert that disk to the partition style called GUID partition table (GPT). To do this, back up any data on the disk, delete all volumes on the disk and then, in Disk Management, right-click the disk (not a partition) and click Convert to GPT Disk. For volumes smaller than 2 terabytes, instead of using GPT, you can use the partition style called master boot record (MBR).

    ImportantImportant

    • You can use either MBR or GPT for a disk that is used by a failover cluster, but you cannot use a disk that you converted to dynamic by using Disk Management.
    • If you purchased software that controls the format or function of the disk, contact the vendor for instructions about how to use that software with Windows Server 2008.

     

  8. Check the format of any exposed volume or LUN. We recommend NTFS for the format (for the witness disk, you must use NTFS).

 

Step 2: Install Hyper-V and Failover Clustering on both physical computers

In this step, you install the Hyper-V role and the Failover Clustering feature.

Procedure 1: Install the Hyper-V role

In this procedure, you install the Hyper-V role on both servers.

To install the role

  1. Click Start, and then click Server Manager.
  2. In the Roles Summary area of the Server Manager main window, click Add Roles.
  3. On the Select Server Roles page, click Hyper-V.
  4. On the Create Virtual Networks page, if the network adapters are identical on both physical computers, select a physical adapter to create a virtual network that provides access to the physical network. If the network adapters are not identical, do not create a virtual network at this time. You can create the virtual network later by following the instructions in Step 4, Create a virtual network.
  5. On the Confirm Installation Selections page, click Install.
  6. The computer must be restarted to complete the installation. Click Close to finish the wizard, and then click Yes to restart the computer.
  7. After you restart the computer, log on with the same account you used to install the role. After the Resume Configuration Wizard completes the installation, click Close to finish the wizard.
Procedure 2: Install the failover cluster feature

In this step, you install the failover cluster feature on both servers. The servers must be running Windows Server 2008.

To install the failover cluster feature on the servers

  1. If you recently installed Windows Server 2008, the Initial Configuration Tasks interface is displayed. Under Customize This Server, click Add features. Then skip to step 3.
  2. If the Initial Configuration Tasks interface is not displayed and Server Manager is not running, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then clickServer Manager. (If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.)

    In Server Manager, under Features Summary, click Add Features.

     

  3. In the Add Features Wizard, click Failover Clustering, and then click Install.
  4. Follow the instructions in the wizard to complete the installation of the feature. When the wizard finishes, close it.
  5. Repeat the process for the second server.

 

Step 3: Create a virtual network

You will need to perform this step on both physical computers if you did not create the virtual network when you installed the Hyper-V role. This virtual network provides the highly available virtual machine with access to the physical network.

To create a virtual network

  1. Open Hyper-V Manager.
  2. From the Actions menu, click Virtual Network Manager.
  3. Under Create virtual network, select External.
  4. Click Add. The New Virtual Network page appears.
  5. Type a name for the new network. Make sure you use exactly the same name on both servers running Hyper-V.
  6. Under Connection Type, click External and then select the physical network adapter.
  7. Click OK.

 

Step 4: Validate the cluster configuration

Before you create the cluster, we strongly recommend that you run a full validation test of your configuration. Validation helps you confirm that the configuration of your servers, network, and storage meets a set of specific requirements for failover clusters.

To validate the failover cluster configuration

  1. To open the failover cluster snap-in, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Failover Cluster Management. (If the User Account Controldialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.)
  2. Confirm that Failover Cluster Management is selected and then, in the center pane under Management, click Validate a Configuration.
  3. Follow the instructions in the wizard to specify the two servers. Run all tests to fully validate the cluster before creating a cluster.
  4. The Summary page appears after the tests run. To view Help topics that will help you interpret the results, click More about cluster validation tests.
  5. While still on the Summary page, click View Reportand read the test results. Or, to view the results of the tests after you close the wizard, see

    SystemRoot\Cluster\Reports\Validation Report date and time.htm

    where SystemRoot is the folder in which the operating system is installed (for example, C:\Windows).

     

  6. As necessary, make changes to the configuration and rerun the tests.

 

Step 5: Create the cluster

To create a cluster, you run the Create Cluster wizard.

To run the Create Cluster wizard

  1. To open the failover cluster snap-in, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Failover Cluster Management. (If the User Account Controldialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.)
  2. Confirm that Failover Cluster Management is selected and then, in the center pane under Management, click Create a cluster.

    Follow the instructions in the wizard to specify:

    • The servers to include in the cluster.
    • The name of the cluster.
    • Any IP address information that is not automatically supplied by your Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) settings.

     

  3. After the wizard runs and the Summary page appears, to view a report of the tasks the wizard performed, click View Report.

 

Step 6: Create a virtual machine and reconfigure the automatic start action

In this step, you create a virtual machine and reconfigure the automatic action that controls the virtual machine’s behavior when the Hyper-V Virtual Machine Management service starts.

Procedure 1: Create a virtual machine

In this step, you use the New Virtual Machine Wizard to create a virtual machine.

Important

You must choose the shared storage as the location to store the virtual machine and the virtual hard disk. Otherwise, you will not be able to make the virtual machine highly available. To make the shared storage available to the virtual machine, you must create the virtual machine on the physical computer that is the node which owns the storage.

To create a virtual machine

  1. Open Hyper-V Manager. Click Start, point to Administrative Tools, and then click Hyper-V Manager.
  2. If you are not already connected to the server that owns the shared storage, connect to that server.
  3. From the Action pane, click New, and then click Virtual Machine.
  4. From the New Virtual Machine Wizard, click Next.
  5. On the Specify Name and Location page, specify a name for the virtual machine, such as FailoverTest. Click Store the virtual machine in a different location, and then type the full path or click Browse and navigate to the shared storage.
  6. On the Memory page, specify the amount of memory required for the operating system that will run on this virtual machine. For example, specify 1024 MB to run Windows Server 2008.
  7. On the Networking page, connect the network adapter to the virtual network that is associated with the physical network adapter.
  8. On the Connect Virtual Hard Disk page, click Create a virtual hard disk. If you want to change the name, type new a name for the virtual hard disk. ClickNext.
  9. On the Installation Options page, click Install an operating system from a boot CD/DVD-ROM. Under Media, specify the location of the media, and then click Finish.

    ImportantImportant

    Do not start the virtual machine at this point. The virtual machine must be turned off so that you can make it highly available.

Procedure 2: Reconfigure automatic start action for the virtual machine

Automatic actions let you automatically manage the state of the virtual machine when the Hyper-V Virtual Machine Management service starts or stops. However, when you make a virtual machine highly available, the management of virtual machine state should be controlled through the Cluster service. In this step, you reconfigure the automatic start action for the virtual machine.

ImportantImportant

Do not to intentionally shut down a node while a virtual machine is running on the node. If you need to shut down the node, take the virtual machine offline, and then shut down the node. Step 11: Modify the settings of a virtual machineshows you how to take a virtual machine offline.

To reconfigure automatic start action for the virtual machine

  1. In Hyper-V Manager, under Virtual Machines, right-click FailoverTest and then click Settings.
  2. In the left pane, click Automatic Start Action.
  3. Under What do you want this virtual machine to do when the physical computer starts?, click Nothing and then click Apply.

 

Step 7: Make the virtual machine highly available

To make the virtual machine highly available, you run the High Availability Wizard.

To make a virtual machine highly available

  1. To open the failover cluster snap-in, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Failover Cluster Management. (If the User Account Controldialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.)
  2. Right-click Services and Applications and click Configure a Service or Application.
  3. The High Availability wizard opens. Click Next.
  4. On the Select Service or Application page, select Virtual Machine from the list and then click Next.
  5. On the Select Virtual Machine page, check the name of the virtual machine that you want to make highly available and then click Next.
  6. Confirm your selection and then click Next again.
  7. The wizard configures the virtual machine for high availability and provides a summary. To see the details of the configuration, click View Report. To close the wizard, click Finish.
  8. To verify that the virtual machine is now highly available, you can check in either one of two places in the console tree:
    1. Expand Services and Applications. The virtual machine should be listed under Services and Applications.
    2. Expand Nodes. Select the node on which you created the virtual machine. Under Services and Applications in the Results pane (the center pane), the virtual machine should be listed.

     

  9. To bring the virtual machine online, under Services and Applications, right-click the virtual machine and then click Bring this service or application online. This action will bring the virtual machine online and start it.

 

Step 8: Configure the virtual machine

In this step, you install Windows Server 2008 on the virtual machine you created in step 5. Then, you install the integration services, which improve performance and integration with the physical computer.

note

If you are installing a different operating system, integration services may not be available. For more information, see About Virtual Machines and Guest Operating Systems (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=128037).

To install the operating system

  1. Open Hyper-V Manager. Under Actions, click Manage virtual machine.
  2. From the Virtual Machines section of the results pane, right-click the name of the virtual machine you created in step 4 and click Connect. The Virtual Machine Connection tool will open.
  3. Proceed through the installation.

    Note

    When you are at the point where you need to provide input to complete the process, move the mouse cursor over the image of the setup window. After the mouse pointer changes to a small dot, click anywhere in the virtual machine window. This action “captures” the mouse so that keyboard and mouse input is sent to the virtual machine. To return the mouse input to the physical computer, press Ctrl+Alt+Left arrow and then move the mouse pointer outside of the virtual machine window.

     

  4. After the operating system is set up, you are ready to install the integration services. From the Action menu of Virtual Machine Connection, click Insert Integration Services Setup Disk. If Autorun does not start the installation automatically, you can start it manually. From a command prompt, type:%windir%\support\amd64\setup.exe.

 

Step 9: Test a planned failover

To test a planned failover, you use Failover Cluster Management to move this service or application to another node.

To test a planned failover

  1. From the console tree, select Services and Applications and then point to FailoverTest.
  2. Right-click the virtual machine, point to Move this service or application to another node, and click the name of the other node.
  3. You can verify that the move succeeded by inspecting the details of each node.

 

Step 10: Test an unplanned failover

To test an unplanned failover, you stop the Cluster service.

To test an unplanned failover

  1. To open the failover cluster snap-in, click Start, click Administrative Tools, and then click Failover Cluster Management. (If the User Account Controldialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Continue.)
  2. From the console tree, select Nodes and then right-click the node that runs the virtual machine.
  3. Select More Actions and then click Stop Cluster Service.
  4. Click Stop the cluster service to confirm the action.
  5. The virtual machine will be moved to the other node.

 

Step 11: Modify the settings of a virtual machine

If you need to modify the settings of a virtual machine, you must follow a specific order. This step walks you through this process by showing you how to modify the boot order in the virtual machine.

To reconfigure a virtual machine

  1. In the Failover Cluster Management snap-in, expand Services and Applications if it is not already expanded.
  2. Under Services and Applications, select FailoverTest.
  3. In the results pane, right-click the virtual machine resource and then click Properties.
  4. Click the Offline Actions tab, and then select Shut down. Click OK.
  5. In the results pane, right-click Failover and then click Take this resource offline.
  6. Open Hyper-V Manager. Under Virtual Machines, right-click FailoverTest and then click Settings.
  7. In the left pane, click BIOS.
  8. Under Startup order, click IDE and then click OK.
  9. Switch back to the Failover Cluster Management snap-in.
  10. In the results pane, right-click Failover and then click Bring this resource online.
  11. Right-click Failover again, and then click Properties.
  12. Click the Offline Actions tab, and then select Save. Click OK.

 

Step 12: Remove a virtual machine from a cluster

When you want to remove a virtual machine from a cluster, the procedure you need to use varies depending on whether you want to keep the virtual machine. This step illustrates both scenarios.

Scenario A: To remove a virtual machine from a cluster and retain the virtual machine

  1. Use the Failover Cluster Management snap-in to take the virtual machine offline. Under Services and Applications, select FailoverTest. In the results pane, right-click Failover and then click Take this resource offline.
  2. This is an optional step that shows you how to export the virtual machine. Exporting a virtual machine allows you to move the virtual machine to another server running Hyper-V, such as a non-clustered server. Switch to Hyper-V Manager and verify that FailoverTest is selected. Under Actions, click Export. Type or browse to specify a location in which to export the virtual machine, and then click Export.
  3. In Hyper-V Manager, verify that FailoverTest is selected. Under Actions, click Delete.
  4. Switch to the Failover Cluster Management snap-in. Expand Services and Applications, and then select FailoverTest. Right-click FailoverTest and then click Delete. This action removes the virtual machine from the cluster.

ImportantImportant

The following steps show you how to delete a virtual machine and its files. Perform these steps only if you do not want to keep the virtual machine.

Scenario B: To remove a virtual machine from a cluster and delete the virtual machine

  1. Use the Failover Cluster Management snap-in to take the virtual machine offline. Under Services and Applications, select FailoverTest. In the results pane, right-click Failover and then click Take this resource offline.
  2. Switch to Hyper-V Manager and select FailoverTest. Under Actions, click Delete.
  3. Switch to the Failover Cluster Management snap-in. Expand Services and Applications, and then select FailoverTest. Right-click FailoverTest and then click Delete. This action removes the virtual machine from the cluster.
  4. Manually delete the virtual machine, and virtual hard disk from the shared storage.

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Windows Server 2008 Failover Cluster Management console for Hyper-V Update (KB 951308)
Tony Soper   |   Edit   |   Show History

Increased functionality and virtual machine control in the Windows Server 2008 Failover Cluster Management console for the Hyper-V role (KB 951308) is now available. The KB (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/951308O describes the changes in the hotfx that update the Failover Cluster Management console (the Cluadmin.msc file) and server components of the failover cluster, including:

  • Changes to the virtual machine view
    After you install this update, the actions for virtual computers are “online,” “offline,” “start,” “stop,” “shutdown,” and “turnoff.”
  • Changes to virtual machine actionsAfter you install this update, the only action in the Failover Cluster Management console for the Hyper-V role is Move Virtual Machines. This action causes each virtual machine that is in the running state to move by using the “save state” shutdown option. If the virtual machine is not in the running state, it does not have to be shut down, and its state will not change during the move.
  • Allow for more than one virtual machine in a “Services or Applications” group
    After you install this update, the Failover Cluster Management console allows for more than one virtual machine. The High Availability Role Wizard for virtual machines identifies virtual machines that have files on the same disk and enables those virtual machines to be configured for High Availability. Therefore, the virtual machines will be in the same Services and Applications group. If the Services and Applications group moves to another node, all the virtual machines in that group are also moved.
  • Add support for mount points or volumes without a drive letter
    After you install this update, the High Availability Wizard can detect when files for a virtual machine are on a volume that is using a mount point or a GUID instead of a drive letter. Additionally, the High Availability Wizard moves the appropriate disks into the same Service or Application group as the virtual machine resource.
  • Changes to the virtual machine refresh action
    After you install this update, a refresh of a virtual machine in a group refreshes all the virtual machines in that group.
  • Behavior changes if any node of the failover cluster has a disconnected virtual machine
    Fixes the conditions that gave you the error: “An error was encountered while loading the list of available virtual machine. Value cannot be null. Parameter name: managementObject.”
  • Behavior change when you add a pass-through disk to a virtual machine
    After you install this update, the Failover Cluster Management console correctly shows that the configuration change is not successful.
  • Behavior change when the parent differencing disk is not on shared storage
    Differencing disks have parent and child relationships. When a differencing disk is configured, a parent disk is specified, and that parent VHD is required to be available for the child differencing disk to function. The parent and child VHDs must be on disks that are in the same Services or Applications group as the virtual machine resource.
    Before you install this update, if the parent disk is not located correctly, the virtual machine may not start because not all the VHDs are located on the same failover cluster node. This update detects the location of the parent VHD and provides a warning if the parent VHD is not on a disk that is configured for shared storage.
  • Volume path copy
    This update lets the path of a storage volume to be copied from the properties of the disk resource in the Failover Cluster Manager console. When you configure a virtual machine, the paths of the volumes must be specified for the disks that will be used. After you apply this update, the path can be copied from the properties of the disk in the Failover Cluster Manager console. This is useful when the path is very long, such as when a volume uses a GUID instead of a drive letter.
    See Also:
    824684 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/824684/LN/) Description of the standard terminology that is used to describe Microsoft software updates
    950050 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/950050/) Description of the update for the release version of the Hyper-V technology for Windows Server 2008

Tags What's this?:clustering (x) deployment (x) hyperv (x) hyper-v (x) virtualization (x) windowsserver2008 (x)Add a tag

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Hyper-V Failover Clustering Options
Jose Barreto   |   Edit   |   Show History

There are many ways to implement Windows Server Failover Clustering with Hyper-V. I could actually find six unique methods to do it. Some of them will actually not give you a fully fault-tolerant solution, but most of them actually make sense in specific scenarios (even if only for demonstrations). In any case, just trying to understand and differentiate them will probably be a good exercise.

You can get details about the first five options at

http://blogs.technet.com/josebda/archive/2008/06/17/windows-server-2008-hyper-v-failover-clustering-options.aspx

Details about the sixth option are available at

http://blogs.technet.com/josebda/archive/2008/07/16/failover-clustering-for-hyper-v-with-file-server-storage.aspx

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Step by step with pictures
Paul Weterings   |   Edit   |   Show History

For a step by step overview of building the two node failover cluster on iSCSI, with pictures of course, take a look at:http://www.servercare.nl/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=61

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